Male factors in infertility

Male factors in infertility can be classified in many ways, but in general it can be divided into the following main factors:

  • Defective spermatogenesis
    In general, the testicles do not produce healthy sperm
  • Reproductive tract obstruction
    Sperm is normally produced in the testicles but sperm is not discharged due to obstruction of the epididymis or vas defernes.
  • Dysfunction in male accessory glands
    Problems with the seminal vesicles or prostate
  • Sexual dysfunction
    Erectile dysfunction or ejaculation disorder
Diagnosis of male infertility

The diagnosis of male infertility starts with an investigation into medical and reproductive history, use of any medication, past surgical history, as well as physical examinations of the scrotum, testes, epididymis, seminal tubules, and other organs.

  • Semen Analysis
    It is the most important part when evaluating the fertility of male infertility patients. If possible, after undergoing an abstinence period of 3-4 days or more, a comprehensive evaluation is performed in consideration of physical examination and lifestyle, and in some cases, two or more re-examinations may be required.
  • Hormone Test
    Test for endocrine abnormalities in male infertility
  • Karyotyping
    Testing for genetic causes of male infertility
  • Radiologic Examination
    Includes transrectal ultrasonography, vasectomy, etc.

Example of Sperm Motility Result

Treatment
  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): A fertility treatment to the case of mild male infertility. Sperm are injected directly to the uterus at the time of ovulation.
  • In-vitro fertilization (IVF): Several eggs retrieved from female are fertilized with sperm externally. Embryo (fertilized egg) is cultured and places to female uterus.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A single sperm injects to eggs directly by microinjector. This injection is applied to male with low sperm motility or abnormal morphology of sperm.