Various tests and treatments are available for male factors of infertility, which make up a significant portion of the total number of infertility cases.

Diagnosis Procedures

The diagnosis of male infertility starts with an investigation into medical and reproductive history, use of any medication, past surgical history, as well as physical examinations of the scrotum, testes, epididymis, seminal tubules, and other organs.

Semen analysis

The most important test in assessing male fertility

  • Semen collection is performed after 3 to 4 days of abstinence Karyotyping.

After a diagnosis of azoospermia on semen analysis, a karyotyping can be conducted for diagnosis of the genetic cause.

Microsurgical multiple testicular sperm extraction (M-TESE)

A surgical method to extract sperm from the testicles in cases of non-obstructive azoospermia.

Example of Sperm Motility Result

  • Intrauterine Insemination (IUI): A fertility treatment to the case of mild male infertility. Sperm are injected directly to the uterus at the time of ovulation.
  • In-vitro fertilization (IVF): Several eggs retrieved from female are fertilized with sperm externally. Embryo (fertilized egg) is cultured and places to female uterus.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A single sperm injects to eggs directly by microinjector. This injection is applied to male with low sperm motility or abnormal morphology of sperm.