Habitual Abortion

It refers to a case in which spontaneous abortions occurs two or more times in a row before 20 weeks of pregnancy, and approximately 1% of women wishing to become pregnant experience habitual miscarriages. In such a condition, the prognosis of subsequent pregnancy is highly likely to be poor, so professional diagnosis and treatment is required.

Causes and Treatment of Habitual Abortion
Causes and Treatment of Habitual Miscarriages

There can be many causes of habitual miscarriage, so accurate diagnosis and treatment are essential.

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus due to parental chromosomal abnormalities can occur, which can lead to repeated umbrellas in early pregnancy. Translocation of chromosomes (translocation: cut in two or more chromosomes, and then combine with other chromosomes again to form a new chromosome) is common, and it is found in about 6% of parents (mom or dad) who have recurrent miscarriages.
Even if the parent's chromosomes are normal, if the mother's age is over 35, fetal chromosomal abnormalities may appear, mainly non-disjunction (non-disjunction: when chromosome division does not occur during meiosis) which leads to an number of autosomal abnormality such as Down syndrome occurs.

  • Diagnosis
    Chromosomal testing for married couples and chromosome testing for aborted fetus
  • Treatment
    Genetic counseling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Uterine Factor

It is due to uterine malformations and intrauterine adhesions, accounting for 15-22% of miscarriages. In addition, fibroids and cervical incompetence can also cause miscarriage.

  • Diagnosis
    Ultrasound, hysteroscopy and diagnostic laparoscopic surgery
  • Treatment
    Correction of deformities and abnormalities through surgery
Infection Factor

Abortion may be repeated by viruses such as TORCH (Toxoplasma, measles, cytomegalovirus, and herpes) that cause fetal malformations or bacteria such as chlamydia and ureaplasma, and appropriate antibiotic and antiviral treatment through diagnosis may be required.

Endocrinological factors

Luteal phase defects may occur if adequate progesterone secretion does not occur after ovulation until early pregnancy. In addition to luteal phase defects, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease can also cause habitual miscarriage.

  • Diagnosis
    Basic hormone measurement and basic blood test on the 2-3rd day of menstruation, and measurement of luteinizing progesterones.
  • Treatment
    Progesterone supplementation (ovulation induction and progesterone administration), treatment for other diseases
Immunological Factor

Immunological factors are known to be responsible for about 50% of all miscarriages, and it is thought that about 80% of miscarriages of unknown cause are caused by an epidemiologic factor. It is largely classified into autoantibody-induced immune abnormalities and autoimmune abnormalities, and can be diagnosed by detecting autoantibodies related to miscarriage or by detecting cells and cytokines involved in alloimmune immunity. It is known that coagulation in the hernial duct is a problem in most immunological factors, so treatment is mainly using the anticoagulants aspirin and heparin, and recently immunoglobulin treatment is also being performed.

Unknown Factor

Most cases of recurrent miscarriages of unknown factors are also known to be associated with immunological factors, so treatment is based immunologically.